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Feasts and Holy Days

Relationships and Significance

 

  Narrative with Bible references below charts 

 

 The Three Feasts of Yahweh . . . with their Seven Holy Days  .  .  .  .  .  .  portray Yeshua . . . and His Bride

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 1  FEAST of UNLEAVENED BREADS

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 2  FEAST of WEEKS (Pentecost)

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 3  FEAST of TABERNACLES

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                      [Passover Offering Day]

 1  FIRST DAY begins with Seder

                      [Waving Day]

.                     [Third Day]

 2  DAY of FAITH

                      [Days of Counting the Omer]

 3  DAY of the FIRSTFRUITS

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                      [Days of Repentance]

 4  DAY of TRUMPETING

                      [Days of Awe]

 5  DAY of the ATONEMENTS

 6  FIRST DAY

 7  EIGHTH DAY ASSEMBLY

 Crucifixion

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 Resurrection

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         .

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 Return

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         .

 Marriage of Lamb

 King

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 Redeemed Bride

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 Maturing Bride

 Betrothal

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 Resurrection

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 Prepared Bride

 Marriage of Lamb

 New World

 

DATE

3  FEASTS of YAHWEH

7  HOLY DAYS

OTHER DAYS

AGRICULTURAL

MESSIANIC

 

Spring

 

 

 

Latter Rains

 

Nisan 14

 

 

Preparation Day -

Passover Offering

 

Crucifixion

Nisan 15

Feast of Unleavened Breads

      Hag haMatzot

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Day

      Yom haReshit

Passover Seder -

          first 6 hours

Last Day -

Bread from Heaven

 

Nisan 16

 

Waving Day -

Begin Omer Count

Begin Barley Harvest:

Barley cakes waved

 

Nisan 17

 

 

.

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Resurrection

Nisan 21

Day of Faith

      Yom haShbi'i  (7th Day)

 

 

Iyyar 27

 

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Noah's Flood Dried

Ascension

Sivan 6

Feast of Weeks (Pentecost)

      Hag Shavuot

3 Day of the Firstfruits

      Yom haBikkurim

50th Day of

Counting Omer

Begin Wheat Harvest:

Wheat loaves waved

 

 

Fall

 

 

 

Former Rains

 

Tishrei 1

 

Day of Trumpeting

      Yom Teruah

10 Days of Awe

 

Return

 

 

 

 

 

Tishrei 10

 

Day of the Atonements

      Yom haKippurim

 

Purification

of Bride

Tishrei 15

Feast of Tabernacles

      Hag Sukkot

 

 

First Day

      Yom haReshit

7 nights & days

of sleeping

and feasting

in a sukkah

Final Harvest of

Tree fruits and nuts

Marriage Supper

of the Lamb

       &

Final Harvest

of World

Tishrei 21

.

.

Tishrei 22

 

Eighth Day Assembly

      Yom Shimini Atzeret

 

 

Kingdom of

Messiah

 

Winter

 

 

 

 

 

Kislev 22

 

 

Dedication

Hanukkah

 

Dedication

Adar 14

 

 

Lots

Purim

 

 

 

A discussion of commonly confusing Scriptures may be found at COMMENTARY LY-55 .

 

3  FEASTS of YAHWEH (Hag Yahweh)

God said, "Three times a year you shall keep a feast to me" (Exodus 23:14). Such a Feast is referred to as a "Feast of Yahweh" (Hag Yahweh - Leviticus 23:39); this term is translated as "Lord's Supper" in many English versions of the Gospels and Epistles.

 

7  HOLY DAYS

There are seven annual Holy Days associated with the three Feasts (Leviticus 23:7, 8, 21, 24-25, 27-32, 35, 36). They are observed like Sabbaths (which are also Holy Days). A Holy Day is a day dedicated to the worship of Yahweh, and therefore mundane work is to be set aside. A Holy Day requires a public worship assembly (mikra kodesh). A Holy Day must be "distinguished" (Ezekiel 20:20, 44:24) from the other days; that is, its beginning and ending are to be marked out, so that the time between is consciously set aside for worship: this is traditionally done with candle-lighting - Erev Yom Tov and Havdallah.

 

BIBLICAL MONTHS and YEARS

For explanation and determinations of months and years, see ROSH HODESH .

For a program for celebrating Rosh Hodesh, see end of SABBATH SIDDUR .

 

______________________ SPRING______________________

 

Feast of Unleavened Breads (Hag haMatzot - Exodus 23:15)

This is a seven-day long Feast that must include lamb (in Temple times, on the first night), unleavened breads (matzot), and bitter herbs (Exodus 12:8). There is so much food set aside for this Feast, that a family should invite the poor to share in it. It lasts from the beginning of Nisan 15 until the end of Nisan 21 (Leviticus 23:6).

 

Nisan 14: On this "day prior", between noon and sunset, the Passover (lamb) must be offered - slain and roasted. "You shall prepare it (the Passover) at its appointed time" (Numbers 9:2). Translations of this verse are often misleading, using terms such as "Keep the Passover" or "Observe the Passover", misunderstood as eating a feast: in Biblical usage, the Passover is a lamb, not a day or a feast. Starting at noon on this day, no leaven may be present: while the Feast does not start until sundown, leaven cannot be present at slaying time. See Exodus 12:6 and John 19:14, 31, 42. Yeshua was presented as Messiah Prophet, Priest, and King during His examination at the Temple grounds in the previous four days. He went through all of the preparation rites for the Paschal Lamb, and was found to be without blemish. Now, this was the day of His crucifixion. See PASSION WEEK HARMONY .

 

The First Day (Yom haReshit - Leviticus 23:7)

Nisan 15: When the Passover lamb is fully prepared, at sunset, the Feast of Unleavened Breads begins on this new day . The Passover (lamb) must be eaten by midnight, but the Feast continues for seven days. This is "the feast of our freedom" - the celebration of a slave-girl being redeemed from Egypt, which represents sin. At this Feast, we take four cups, anciently called "the Blood of the Covenant", representing the four parts of the Covenant: sanctification, deliverance, redemption, and glorification. We also break matzah (unleavened bread, which is pierced and striped), representing the death of Yeshua's body - without sin (leaven), being pierced, and scourged. See PASSOVER SEDER HAGGADAH .

 

Nisan 16 - Waving Day: As soon as it was dark, the beginning of the new day, Priests would go to a field and reap an ephah (about a bushel) of the best new barley. In the morning, it would be processed into an omer of fine flour, mixed with olive oil, and waved with a lamb before Yahweh, then burned upon the Altar. This is the first of fifty days of Counting the Omer. See OMER for details. (Torah never uses the term bikkur (firstfruit) in reference to this day; it is not called "Feast of Firstfruits.") After the slave-girl celebrates the Holy Day of her redemption, she starts counting down the days to her betrothal to Messiah.

 

Nisan 17 - Resurrection Sabbath: The third day after the Passover was slain (the third day of the seven-day Feast of Unleavened Breads) is the day Yeshua came out of the tomb - in defeat of Satan's armies, in fulfillment of Jonah's prophecy of three days and three nights in the heart of the earth, and in fulfillment of His own words of God raising His lamb from a pit on the Sabbath Day. When two women came to the tomb before sunrise, angels rolled away the stone to show that He was already gone (Matthew 28:1). On the Sabbath Day, which memorializes (among other things) the Resurrection, an elevation offering is made - two lambs.

 

Day of Faith - Seventh Day (Yom haShbi'i - Leviticus 23:8)

Nisan 21: This is the day that Israel was brought through the Sea on dry ground, then saw the Egyptian army drowned in it. (Messianic description being rewritten.) See SEVENTH DAY.

 

Iyyar 27: The forty-second day of Counting the Omer, the date that Noah's flood waters were dried from the earth (Genesis 8:14). The water of life ascended from the earth. This being forty days after His resurrection (Acts 1:3), Yeshua ascended into the heavens, after saying, "I go to prepare a place for you" (John 14:2-3). After redeeming the slave-girl, He must go to His Father's house to prepare a dwellingplace for their future married life. John later foretells of this prepared city that will come down from the heavens adorning the bride for her husband (Revelation 21:2).

 

Feast of Weeks (Hag Shavuot - Exodus 34:22)

This is a one-day Feast that is also called:

Day of the Firstfruits (Yom haBikkurim - Numbers 28:26)

Sivan 6: The fiftieth day of Counting the Omer (Pentecost means fiftieth day). On this day a peace offering is made by the prospective bride: two lambs are waved on this day, with two large loaves of leavened bread, each made from an omer of fine wheat flour. See Exodus 34:22, Leviticus 23:15-17, Numbers 28:26.

Pentecost is about Messiah giving a betrothal contract to His future bride.

 

Over thirty-three-hundred years ago, on Pentecost, the Torah was given with two stone tablets as a betrothal contract in the tongue of angels (Hebrew) and the tongues of men (languages of the 70 nations. In a similar manner, almost two-thousand years ago, on Pentecost, the Gospel was given in the tongue of angels and the tongues of men, displaying an "earnest contract" with the bride (Acts 2:1-11, Ephesians 1:14).

 

At this feast, we take the bride's Betrothal Cup, saying, "All that the Lord our God says, we will obey, and we will learn" (Deuteronomy 5:27). We will literally and perfectly and whole-heartedly fulfill this when we are glorified and dwelling with Messiah. See PENTECOST MACHZOR .

 

______________________ FALL_______________________

 

The Month of Elul - the thirty days preceding Yom Teruah, are known as the Days or Repentance, repentance being followed by immersion in a mikvah. At this season John the Baptizer was preaching "the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins" - Luke 3:3.

 

Day of Trumpeting (Yom Teruah - Leviticus 23:24)

Tishrei 1: This day is also known as Rosh haShannah (Head of the Year for Sabbatical and Jubilee years). This is the day that "no man knows the day or the hour". It is observed as a forty-nine hour Sabbath during which we are to stay awake and watch! On this day the Shofar (Ram’s Horn Trumpet) is blown many times, with a shout preceding each trump. The command for this day is to “Hear the Shofar.” (Yom Teruah is pronounced Yome Te-ROO-ah.) See Leviticus 23:24, 1 Thessalonians 4:16, 1 Corinthians 15:52; explanation of Hebrew texts in Mishnah: Rosh HaShannah. On this day, a ram's-horn trumpet, called a shofar, is blown several times with specific sounds (see I Corinthians 14:8). Each trump of the shofar has a specific meaning indicated by a preceding shout. The Last Trump of the shofar is preceded by the shout of "Tekiah Gedolah," which translates as the Great Return.

The Day of Trumpeting is about Messiah returning for His bride.This celebration is an annual rehearsal for that day when the archangel will shout "Tekiah Gedolah" , and the Last Trump will be heard (I Thessalonians 4:16). Then the righteous dead will be raised immortal (I Corinthians 15:52-54), and Yeshua will return for His coronation as King of the Whole Earth.

The ten days from the Day of Trumpeting to the Day of the Atonements are called Yamim Noraim, translated the Days of Awe. We shall kneel in awe before Messiah Yeshua.

Day of the Atonements (Yom haKippurim - Leviticus 23:27)

Tishrei 10: This is the only Biblically mandated fast day. (The singular word Kippur/Atonement never occurs in Scripture. Yom HaKippurim is pronounced Yome Haw-kee-poo-REEM.) On this day two goats are the main symbols, representing the two atonements.  See Leviticus 16:7-34, 23:27-32.

The Day of the Atonements is about Messiah presenting to Himself a spotless bride (Ephesians 5:21). Two goats represent Messiah. Two kinds of atonement are required (Leviticus 16:8-22).

The first goat is the goat for Yahweh, commonly called an elevation offering (it is burned on an altar and the aroma ascends). It represents Yeshua's righteousness being imputed to us, ascending to God as our aroma of righteousness (Romans 4:24). The second goat is the goat for Azazel, commonly called the scapegoat. The sins of the people are symbolically placed upon it, and it is led into the wilderness. It represents Yeshua taking our sins upon Himself, and taking them away from us. See ATONEMENTS MACHZOR .

 

Feast of Tabernacles (Hag haSukkot - Leviticus 23:34)

This is a seven-day long Feast that features tree fruit and nuts.

 

The First Day (Yom haReshit - Leviticus 23:35)

Tishrei 15: Tishrei 15-21 is the seven-day Feast of Tabernacles or Booths. It is observed by dwelling in a sukkah, a temporary structure made of tree-branches, for the seven days, and feasting primarily on tree fruits and nuts. The first day is a Yom Tov – observed as a Sabbath. (Hag Sukkot is pronounced Hawg sue-KOAT, and may be transliterated/spelled various ways including Hag Succoth.) See Leviticus 23:39-43, Numbers 29:12-34, Deuteronomy 16:13-17; explanation of Hebrew texts in Mishnah: Sukkot. During the seven days, seventy bullocks are offered - 13,12,11,10,9,8,7 - representing the downfall of the seventy nations.

The Feast of Tabernacles is Messiah's seven-day wedding feast. It is called the Time of our Joy.

By this feast, all of the crops of fruit have been brought in. This culminating agricultural feast represents the culmination of the marriage. The earth has been reaped, and all of the fruit (God's people) has been brought in. The Covenant is fulfilled, and Emmanuel (God with us) is pictured as dwelling in His tabernacle (this earth) with His spotless bride.

 

The Eighth Day Assembly (Shimini Atzeret - Leviticus 23:36)

Tishrei 22: it follows the seven days of Sukkot. It is a Yom Tov, observed as a Sabbath. It is also the ancient Simcha Torah, meaning Rejoicing in the Torah, though modern Jews celebrate this one day later. See Numbers 29:35 - 30:1.  A special offering on this day is one bullock.

The Eighth Day Assembly represents Messiah dwelling with us on the eternal, renewed earth. All seventy nations, represented by the seventy bullocks offered on Sukkot, have become one - the Kingdom of Messiah, represented by the single bullock offered this day.

 

 this chart being replaced

 3  FEASTS of YAHWEH

 DATE

 AGRICULTURAL

 MESSIANIC

 OFFERINGS

 

 

 

 7  HOLY DAYS

 

 

 

  (Partial listing)

 

SPRING

Latter Rains

 

 

Preparation Day

Nisan 14

 

Crucifixion

& Burial

Passover Lamb

prepared / offered

1 FEAST of UNLEAVENED BREADS - 7 days

 

.

1 FIRST DAY

Nisan 15

Last day

"Bread from heaven"

Slave-girl redeemed

for Bride

Passover eaten w/

Unleavened Breads

Waving Day

Nisan 16

First of grain harvest

 

Lamb waved with

Omer mixture

Countdown

to Betrothal

50 days

of Omer

Grain crops

maturing

Bride's time

of maturing

 

 

Nisan 17

 

Resurrection

Elevation Offering:

Sabbath - 2 Lambs

2 SEVENTH DAY

(Day of Faith)

Nisan 21

 

Bride delivered

from enemy

 

 

Iyyar 27

Noah's flood dried

Ascension

 

2 FEAST of WEEKS  (PENTECOST)

 

 

3 DAY of FIRSTFRUITS

Sivan 6

Begin wheat harvest

Bride betrothed

to Messiah

Peace Offering:

2 Lambs waved w/

2 Omer Loaves

 

 

 

FALL

Former Rains

 

 

4 DAY of TRUMPETING

Tishrei 1

 

Return of Messiah

for Bride

 

5 DAY of the ATONEMENTS

Tishrei 10

 

Purification

of Bride

2 Goats for

2 Atonements

3 FEAST of TABERNACLES - 7 days

 

 

6 FIRST DAY

Tishrei 15

 

Begin downfall

of nations

Begin Ram offerings

for Nations

 

7 days

Feast

Final harvest of

tree fruit & nuts

Harvest of World,

Wedding Feast

70 Bullocks

for 70 Nations

 

7 EIGHTH DAY ASSEMBLY

Tishrei 22

 

Final Abode

1 Bullock for

Kingdom of Messiah

 

 


 

Offering Chart

 

Daily
am & pm

Sabbath

Rosh Hodesh

 

Matzah

Day 1     2        3   4   5   6   7

Bikkurim

 

 

Teruah

Kippurim

Sukkot

Day 1   2   3   4   5   6   7

Eighth Day

Bread

 

 

 

 

Matzah              (all 7 days)

2 Loaves 5

 

 

 

 

 

Special

 

 

 

 

Lamb Lamb 4

2 Lambs  6

 

 

2 Goats 7

 

 

Bullocks

 

 

1

 

   2         2         2   2   2   2   2

2

 

1

1

   13  12  11  10   9    8    7

1 8

Rams

 

 

1

 

   1         1         1   1   1   1   1

1

 

1

1

    2    2    2    2    2    2    2

1

Lambs

1 & 1  1

1

7  1

 

   7         7         7   7   7   7   7

7

 

7

7

   14  14  14  14  14  14  14

7

Goats

 

 

2

 

   1         1         1   1   1   1   1

1

 

1

1 2

    1    1    1    1    1    1    1

1

 

Num 28:3-8

Num 28:9-10

Num 28:11-15

 

Num 28:16-24 
Lev 23:10-13

Num 28:26-31
Lev 23:16-20

 

Num 29:2-6

Num 29:7-11

Num 29:12-34

Num 29:35-38

   Note: Daily, Sabbath, and Rosh Hodesh Offerings are in addition to all other offerings.

Accompaniment

Bullock

Ram

Lamb

Goat

 

Elevation Offerings (Burned – go up as pleasing aroma) 9

Sin Offering 2

Fine Wheat Flour

3 Omers  (2 gal)

2 Omers  (5 qt)

1 Omer  (2 2/3 qt = 4 lbs)

 

    mix w Olive Oil

½ Hin  (2 qt)

1/3 Hin  (1½  qt)

¼ Hin

 

Fermented Wine

½ Hin  (2 qt)

1/3 Hin  (1½  qt)

¼ Hin  (1 qt)

 

 

Num 15:8-9

Num 15:6-7

Num 15:3-5

Lev 4

(US measurements shown are based on chart below)

1   Bullocks, Rams, and Lambs are Elevation Offerings
2   Goat is Sin Offering: some blood on horns of altar, fat burned on altar, rest burned outside camp.
3   Lamb with matzah and bitter herbs is Passover (Eaten by family)
4   Lamb with an Omer Unleavened Loaf of Barley Flour and oil - Wave Offering for First Day of Counting Omer
5   Two Leavened Omer Wheat Loaves - Wave Offering for Fiftieth Day of Counting Omer
6   2 Lambs are Peace Offering – waved with above loaves
7   Goats are Atonement Offerings
8   The 70 (13+12+11+10+9+8+7) kingdoms of this world become the (1) Kingdom of God
9   Loaves (for Elevation Offerings) are completely burned with the animal.

Cooked offerings are made as ten cakes or wafers, then broken into crumbs. “Threefingersful” (kometz) of the grain offering and all of the frankincense are burned on the altar as the memorial portion. The remainder may be eaten only inside the courtyard by priests.

Leviticus 1:
(V.2:1) Grain offering – uncooked:
                wheat flour mixed with oil is salted and offered with frankincense.
(V.4) Grain offering baked in oven:
                wheat flour is kneaded with water, cakes mixed with oil or wafers spread with oil after baking,
                salted and offered with frankincense.
(V.5) Grain offering fried on griddle:
                wheat flour is kneaded with water, wafers mixed with oil, broken into bits and spread with oil,
                salted and offered with frankincense.
(V.7) Grain offering deep-fried in pan:
                wheat flour is kneaded with water, cakes mixed with oil, then cooked in oil,
                salted and offered with frankincense.

Firstfruit Offering on Waving Day

(This wave offering is not a “sheaf” of grain, and the day is neither the “Feast of ” nor “Day of ”  Firstfruits.)

(V.14) Omer of barley flour (for second day of unleavened bread):
                plump kernels of barley are parched over a fire, then ground and sifted into fine flour.
                It is mixed with oil, salted, and sprinkled with grains of hardened frankincense.
                It was waved before Yahweh.

 



 

Biblical Dry and Liquid Measurements
See Reference Guide to The Steinsaltz Edition of The Talmud

Measurements are based on the volume of an egg.
A Jerusalem egg is 20% larger than a Wilderness egg.
Na'eh System:           Wilderness egg  =  2    fl oz       Jerusalem egg  =  2.4 fl oz
Hazon Ish System:
   Wilderness egg  =  3.5 fl oz       Jerusalem egg  =  4.2 fl oz

Dry Measure Liquid Measure   Eggs U.S. Measure
        based on 2 oz egg
Kor Kor   4320 67 1/2 gallons
Ephah Bat 1/10  Kor 432 6 3/4 gallons
Se'ah   1/30  Kor  =  1/3 Ephah 144 2 1/4 gallons
Tarkav Hin 1/60  Kor 72 1 1/8 gallons (oil / wine)
Omer / Isaron   1/100 Kor  =  1/10 Ephah 43 2 2/3 quarts (4 lbs flour)
Kav   1/180 Kor 24 1 1/2 quarts
  Log 1/720 Kor 6 1 1/2 cups

 

 

© 2003  Beikvot HaMashiach
(Followers of the Messiah)